A Walking Disaster

This article was originally published in Christianity Today on May 26, 2017. 

Image: Illustration by Hugh Syme

Image: Illustration by Hugh Syme

How a hurricane helped me weather my battle with cancer.

As I emerged from the fog of anesthesia, I heard the surgeon informing my wife, Kelly, that our worst fear had improbably come true.

“Cancer!?” I interrupted, before falling back into unconsciousness. That happened six more times before I fully awoke.

Earlier in the week, tests had revealed a suspicious growth atop a nerve bundle in my pelvis, which explained the shooting leg pains I had been experiencing. Baffled about where the mass might have originated, I was scheduled for a colonoscopy. “Chances of cancer in someone your age and health are less than 1 percent,” the surgeon said just before performing the procedure.

Not long after, I found myself at a cancer center looking over an oncologist’s shoulder and examining my test results on his computer.

“It’s cancer,” he confirmed. He went on: The cancer was advanced, and the tumor in my colon had spread to create the mass in my pelvic region.

I cried as the shock started to wear off. The oncologist tried some small talk. “What is it you do for a living?” he asked. I told him I’m a college professor, and that I direct the Humanitarian Disaster Institute (HDI), a Wheaton College research center dedicated to the study of faith and disasters.

“Looks like you’re in for your own personal disaster,” he said.

At the age of 35, I was diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer. I had multiple surgeries to remove it. Altogether, I underwent chemotherapy for close to a year. For the first six months, my oncologist would only respond to my requests for a prognosis by telling me, “I can’t tell you that it’s going to be okay, Jamie. It’s too early to tell. But if there’s anyone you want to see or anything you want to do, now is the time.” This wasn’t how it was supposed to be; I was supposed to grow old and gray with my wife. I was supposed to watch my three young daughters grow up.

Cancer wasn’t my first disaster. In the summer of 2005, my family and I had moved to southern Mississippi just six days before Hurricane Katrina slammed the Gulf Coast. We had no idea the storm was headed for us until the pastor of a church we were visiting alerted the congregation. I remember feeling helpless, unsure what course of action to take. We eventually decided to evacuate, not wanting our daughter’s first memories of her new home to be darkened by a massive storm.

When we returned, it looked like a war had been fought in our community. Six weeks after landfall, I began helping churches across Mississippi and Louisiana that had been affected by the costliest natural disaster in US history. My experiences there inspired me to dedicate my career to studying the role of faith and the church in disaster relief and humanitarian aid.

But my cancer was different. I had no opportunity to evacuate as I did before Katrina. This time, the storm was striking within: I was a walking disaster.

What I had studied about faith and resilience in mass disaster zones across the globe was suddenly playing out in my own life. My work had taught me about the importance of finding meaning, surrendering spiritually, and leaning on community in times of crisis. Now cancer made these lessons personal.

The Importance of the Search

One of the most critical and difficult tasks in disaster relief is the search process. A journalist recently told me about a small group of missionaries he interviewed who were trapped under their hotel after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Had it not been for the tireless efforts of hopeful search crews digging through the rubble against all odds, none of them would have survived. The search is vitally important whether it results in miracle or tragedy—we don’t go into it knowing what will happen.

The same is true of personal disasters. Cancer upended my world, from the most mundane details to threatening my dreams for the future. Those first weeks after the diagnosis were consumed by assessments, tests, and scans as the doctors searched to understand my cancer. I was haunted by “why” questions—and by what I might discover—as I searched for meaning in the aftermath.

While deployed with a relief agency after Hurricane Sandy in 2012, a colleague of mine met a man whose roof had been blown away. This man surprised the relief team with his ability to find meaning in the situation: “Sometimes you have to lose the roof to see the stars,” he said.

In a recent study, my colleagues and I found that people who seek spiritual meaning amidst disaster experience lower rates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. This type of meaning is not easily or immediately found, and in the initial throes of catastrophe it often escapes us. But there’s good news: Research has found that striving to make meaning out of suffering can yield positive benefits similar to actually finding answers—at least for a period of time. Over the long haul, studies suggest it’s better for our well-being to make meaning of our tragedies than to remain in a permanent state of quest.

A common rejoinder at this point: “That’s great, but I didn’t just lose my roof, I lost my whole house, and every attempt to find meaning has only brought trite answers.” That’s fair. I felt the same way. What’s important is that the process doesn’t end there.

In my case, after countless attempts to find answers, I realized no single answer was going to make everything okay. The comfort I eventually found did not come in the form of “right” answers, but in God himself. He promises to be with us even in the most terrifying of places and times (Ps. 46:1). We can’t mistake his goodness, which he promises us in this life (Ps. 27:13), for the absence of hard things. His goodness is not dependent on our circumstances but can be found in all things—like losing a roof and gaining the stars.

The Strength of Surrender

Survivors of the most horrific disasters discover that if they are going to make it through, they have to learn to give up control over what they can’t control. When we do this out of a place of faith, it’s called spiritual surrender. It helps us understand what we do and don’t have control over when faced with overwhelming challenges.

In a study I led after Hurricane Katrina, we found that people who reported higher levels of spiritual surrender viewed God more positively and as being more in control. This finding didn’t make sense to me at the time. It seemed too passive to be an effective response, and the word surrender sounded to me like something people did when they had stopped fighting or had given up hope.

But my perspective on spiritual surrender was forever altered one winter morning in the middle of my fight with cancer: I was taking the trash to the curb, the freezing air cutting like tiny razor blades across my hands and feet thanks to increased nerve sensitivity caused by chemotherapy. I prayed God would heal me.

I kept praying as I walked back into my home, questioning if God even heard me. Then I dropped to my knees at the foot of my bed. I stopped asking for healing, and instead I asked God to take care of my wife and children if I didn’t make it.

This was the hardest prayer of my life. For the first time, I truly experienced spiritual surrender. I finally understood. True spiritual surrender is far from passive—it is a willful act of obedience (Rom. 12:1). Spiritual surrender resigns us to what is and reconciles us to our loss.

It may sound counter-intuitive, but spiritual surrender allows us to experience the fullness of God as we face our situation head-on, releasing our tightly held lives to him. When we let go of our desires at the foot of the cross, we position ourselves to gain not necessarily what we want but what we really need—eternal hope (1 Thess. 4:13). This is what Søren Kierkegaard referred to as the “double movement” of faith. Letting go of your control will paradoxically place you in the hands of God, through whom all things are possible (Matt. 19:26).

The Vulnerability of Community

When Craig Fugate, former administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, took the reins of the agency in 2009, he ushered in a “whole community” approach. This disaster response strategy recognizes the importance of engaging local communities alongside emergency management professionals.

When disaster strikes, we all need community—especially spiritual community. God created us for and called us into community that we might “carry each other’s burdens” (Gal. 6:2). It is God’s graciousness that offers us this gift, and we can choose to not let the pain isolate us but to let it unite us.

My colleagues and I conducted a study after flooding hit South Carolina in 2015. Findings showed that positive spiritual support (i.e., assistance from one’s faith community) is an important predictor of individual disaster resilience among survivors. We also discovered that spiritual support promoted post-disaster religious well-being (i.e., positive perceptions of God) and perceived posttraumatic growth.

Shortly after I made my diagnosis public, Wheaton College president Philip Ryken stopped by my home to pray with me. I confessed that I didn’t like being the type of person who needed help. He replied, “We don’t like to admit it to ourselves, Jamie, but we are all the type of people who need help.”

My spiritual community deployed in full force for the better part of a year. They brought food, took care of my family, took me to appointments, mowed our lawn in the summer, plowed the driveway when winter came, sent cards, texted and called, engaged in sacred conversations, covered my classes when I was too weak to teach, and sat by my side as I received drip chemotherapy.

This care was also visible in the blue rubber bracelets my Wheaton colleagues and students began wearing. Each bracelet was inscribed with my name and the phrase, “Lord, hear our prayer.” This small gesture was a big reminder that I belonged to a loving spiritual community and was not alone. My wife and I also wore the bracelets, and our three young daughters wore theirs around their ankles. I would see these bracelets on wrists everywhere I went on campus, on people I barely knew and on complete strangers in the community. I even received a picture of refugee pastors wearing the bracelets in Kenya’s Kakuma Refugee Camp, where HDI had assisted and done research.

A few weeks after completing my last chemotherapy treatment, tests showed I was in remission. I’ll never forget the joy my family and I experienced as we took off our blue bracelets.

But I still keep one in my nightstand, another in my office desk drawer, and one in the front pocket of my backpack. I do this as a reminder that God created each of us for community. Don’t try to go through a disaster alone.

The Recovery of Redemption

Finding your new normal in the wake of a life-altering personal disaster can feel like an impossible feat. For some people, life may never go back to how it was. But our latest research suggests cultivating fortitude may help.

The church has long taught fortitude as the virtue of adversity and as a fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22). Whereas one of the hallmarks of resilience is expediting recovery, fortitude places greater value on endurance and persevering through long-suffering.

We find an example of this in the people of Goma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They survived genocide and war, only to have some of their homes destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Mount Nyiragongo in early 2002. The survivors responded with fortitude by returning to the region a month later, some using lava rock to rebuild their houses. They not only found beauty in the ashes—they found refuge.

I didn’t start to regain my pre-cancer cognitive and physical functioning until about nine months after hearing my oncologist say, “no evidence of disease.” Just as I started to come to grips with permanent nerve damage and an array of side effects caused by my treatments, another crisis struck. I needed surgery to address complications arising from my first series of surgeries. After three more weeks in the hospital, I was finally discharged. I felt like I was starting the recovery process all over again.

Fortitude is about pushing forward in the promise that God can work in our brokenness. It is about pursuing good in the face of fear and hardship, as expressed in 2 Timothy 4:7, “I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith.”

I am now in better health and have been in remission for more than three years, for which I am incredibly grateful. But I still occasionally struggle with how the many treatments have changed my body. Sometimes my anxiety spikes as I worry the cancer will come back. I continue to work through survivor guilt—three others in my college community have lost their battles with cancer since I began mine.

Each of these struggles has shown me that God will not abandon us, no matter how badly or how often we are knocked down (2 Cor. 4:8–9). These difficulties have also taught me that life’s disasters need not have the last word.

Be it in this life or the next, God promises to redeem our disasters.

I was getting ready for work one morning not long after finding out I was in remission. As I was standing in front of the mirror buttoning my shirt, my youngest daughter walked by my room. I saw her reflection as the then-four-year-old paused to survey the surgery scars on my chest and torso. I felt very self-conscious in that moment and worried about her seeing me this way. My daughter asked, in a tender voice, if I would have my scars in heaven. I paused.

“God will give Daddy a new body,” I said.

A smile started at the corner of her mouth and grew enormous as my words sank in.

“Yes!” she exclaimed, pumping her fist in the air like an athlete after a game-winning play. She happily skipped off.

 

Jamie D. Aten, PhD, is an endowed professor of psychology at Wheaton College and founder and executive director of the college’s Humanitarian Disaster Institute in Wheaton, Illinois. His latest books include the Disaster Ministry Handbook (InterVarsity Press) and Spiritually Oriented Psychotherapy for Trauma (American Psychological Association).

Wired for Survival

This piece was originally published in Psychology Today's To Heal and Carry On on June 15, 2017.

Source: Matt Popovich/Unsplash

Source: Matt Popovich/Unsplash

Understand and harness your body's natural stress response when it counts.

Early Wednesday morning on June 14th a gunman opened fire on a Republican congressional baseball team practice in Alexandria, Virginia. Five people were injured before police killed the shooter. This sobering tragedy reminds us how fragile life can be—but also that the human body is wired for survival.

Herb Jackson USA Today Network contributor described the scene as follows, “A ball field became a battlefield, and reignited the military training of some of the players, with one describing how he ‘Army crawled’ his way to safety while another, a former combat surgeon, worked to treat the wounded...” This brief excerpt highlights the critical role the human body’s fight or flight response plays in survival situations.

Following I describe the critical role stress plays in life and death situations, and you’ll see why your body’s fight or flight response is essential to putting the odds of survival in your corner. Then I share three stress-harnessing strategies research suggests may help increase the chance of surviving an extreme event: situational awareness, mindfulness, and rehearsal.

How the Body Responds Under Extreme Stress

The American Institute of Stress defines stress as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change.” When your body detects a threat your autonomic nervous system sounds like an alarm telling you something is wrong. The amygdala, the area of the brainresponsible for emotions, memory, and survival instincts, is activated like a gas pedal hitting the floor. Stress hormones are automatically released triggering your body’s fight or flight response—and automatic instinctive reaction to danger. This stress response is one of the ways your body helps mobilize us to cope with survival threats, but it’s only helpful up to a certain point.

Sometimes the body’s fight or flight response is so intense that it can actually cause the body to lock up or freeze. In some instances the freeze response is a good thing and could possibly save your life. For example, research on active shootings suggest that shooters are initially more likely to fire their weapon at people upright and running than people taking cover on the ground.

Yet, once the shooter begins approaching people lying still after the initial chaos stops, research suggests one of the worst thing you can do is to remain frozen. A 13-year study of active shooting events in the U.S. suggests your best course of action for survival at this point is to run away if possible—but escape is not always an option. In these situations the Department of Homeland Security recommends people try and subdue the intruder once they get close enough.

Then there’s the opposite of freezing under pressure. Be aware your body could kick into survival mode in situations where it’s not needed setting off false alarms. For example, consider a veteran struggling to adjust to civilian life after returning home who hears a muffler backfire and dives for cover. The source of the noise was harmless, but this person’s body interpreted the loud noise as a combat threat.

Another danger is that your body might start to continuously release stress hormones like cortisol, which can become a threat to survival in its own right. This can result in a wide range of difficulties, from relationship problems caused by cloudy thinking to significant healthconsequences, like increased cancer and heart attack risks.

Ways to Harness Your Stress Reaction for Survival

Your body’s fight or flight response plays a valuable role in keeping you safe. But as I’ve pointed out, sometimes your instincts may miss the mark, are just flat wrong, and may actually put you further in harm’s way. Thankfully studies suggest there may be some things you can do to hone your body’s stress response. Situational awareness, mindfulness, and rehearsal are three important strategies you can use to improve your chances of making good decisions and taking the right course of action when it matters most.

Everyone from first responders to military tactical leaders to survivalists swear by what’s called situational awareness. The US Coast Guard Training Manual defines situational awareness as the ability to "identify, process, and comprehend critical elements of information about what is happening...knowing what is going on around you.” Developing situational awareness fosters interacting flexibly with a threatening environment by anticipating potentially looming threats. To engage with situational awareness don’t try and focus on everything in your environment at once. Instead be attuned to what doesn’t belong. Give your attention to what doesn’t make sense or is out of place around you. Next scan your surroundings for pertinent information, letting the rest fall into the background. Loop in new information as it’s encountered. Best as you can, try and stay one mental step ahead of what is unfolding anticipating obstacles or resources life might throw at you next.

Mindfulness is another way you can harness your physiological response in the wake of extreme stress. Simply stated mindfulness is paying attention on purpose to one’s body, which is particularly important when encountering a threat. Though this may sound easy, it’s a lot harder than most people think. You likely spend a lot of energy and brainpower evaluating and judging your thoughts and feelings, this is especially true when catastrophe hits. Once the shock wears off, you are likely to experience some intense emotional, cognitive, and physical stress. Start with some deep breathing, this can help start to calm your mind and body. Pay attention to how your body is reacting, especially to what your thoughts, feelings, and physical sensations are trying to tell you. Initially try not to judge what is happening inside of you or around you. If possible reach out to others to get their take on what is happening while listening between the lines to what is shared. Lastly, trust yourself and act on your intuition.

Rehearsal or practice is another way we can prepare for the worse. Did you ever have a tornado drill in grade school? If yes, you probably remember hearing an announcement come over the school intercom similar to this one: “Get under the desk, put your head between your knees, and fold your hands over your head.” It turns out your schoolteachers knew what they were doing. Research has shown that there’s value in training for worse case scenarios. It not only teaches us how to respond but also creates muscle memory or motor learning. This is the ability to perform movements without conscious thought. Neuroscience research has revealed that our brains prepare to move before we become aware of our intent to take action. The more you prepare for the unexpected, the more likely your training will take over when instinct takes the driver’s wheel.

My hope is that the closest you’ll ever get to an extreme event like the congressional baseball practice shooting will only be a drill. But in the event it’s not, remember to be aware of your body’s stress response, practice situational awareness, engage in mindfulness, and let your training take over. These steps cannot guarantee that everything will be all right, but studies suggest they may give you a fighting chance at survival.

Dr. Jamie D. Aten is a disaster psychologist and the founder and executive director of the Humanitarian Disaster Institute at Wheaton College in Illinois. His latest books include theDisaster Ministry Handbook and Spiritually Oriented Psychotherapy for Trauma.You can follow Jamie on Twitter at @drjamieaten or visit his website jamieaten.com.

Copyright by Jamie D. Aten

Cultivating Resilience Through Story

This piece was originally published on Psychology Today's To Heal and Carry On on May 19, 2017.

Source: Jan Kahanek/Unsplash

Source: Jan Kahanek/Unsplash

How storytelling can help you gain control over life's disasters.

I was diagnosed with Stage IV cancer at the age of 35—and am now three years in remission.

Not long ago, I went back and read the journal that I kept throughout my cancer experience. I had an a-ha moment as I read the words I had penned.

I realized I was holding an important tool for cultivating resilience right there in my hands: I’m not just talking about my journal—but rather my story.

Here are three ways you can unlock the power of story to help you navigate life’s disasters.

Share your story when you’re ready

Journalist Michele Weldon notes, “We all lead lives worthy of preservation. Our stories need to be told, if to no one else, then only to ourselves…”

Yet, sharing our personal disaster stories with others can be difficult. I was in remission for nearly two years before I shared my cancer disaster story publicly. Before that, I just shared small bits and pieces of my story with the people closest to me.

I learned our stories are not something to be rushed.

In the past, mental health professionals used an intervention called “critical incident debriefing” immediately after disasters. The idea was that if we could get people together to tell their stories right after a major tragedy, we could prevent them from experiencing long-term trauma. We now know at best this approach is not helpful and at worse is all out harmful.  

Sometimes we need to hold on to our stories for a time so we can properly cope with them. Don’t feel like you have to rehash or relive unwanted events if you’re not ready. Only share what you feel comfortable sharing.

Sharing our trauma before we are ready is like volunteering to have a wound opened when there are no supplies available for bandaging the injury. Be patient with your story and allow yourself to heal before you share it with others.

Be mindful of who you trust with your story

After finding out I had cancer, I had to get a CT scan to further assess how much it had spread.

It was then that I realized I was going to have to tell my three little girls that “Daddy has cancer.” I started sobbing and shaking uncontrollably. The tech had to stop the scan.

She asked what was wrong and why I was getting the scan. After briefly sharing my story, she replied, “God only tests the strong,” and, “At least you don’t have it as bad as I did when I battled cancer.” Because I’ve studied trauma long enough, I was able to brush off her unhelpful comments.

But I was left wondering how deeply these well-meaning but poorly chosen words might have affected others with whom she’s likely shared the same platitudes.

Don’t put yourself in a vulnerable position if you can prevent it—choose safe people.

Reach out to family members, friends, or helpers (e.g., psychologists) who you know you can trust with your story.

Keep telling your story

The more you tell your story, the more control you’ll gain over your personal disaster experience. Perhaps you’ve seen this in action as a disaster survivor repeats their story over and over to others.

I saw it with a survivor after a flood in Northern Illinois, who eagerly shared the same version of his story almost verbatim with each new volunteer that came to help over the course of the day: “You wouldn’t believe how high the waters were…” and, “You can’t imagine how high the waters were…”

I saw it in Japan after the 3/11 earthquake and tsunami, where I met an elderly woman who shared her story with us while our team visited an evacuation shelter. She said, “Every time you come to visit, you remove rubble from my heart.”

These two people survived very different catastrophes. They lived in different countries thousands of miles apart. Both came from very different cultures and backgrounds. Yet, both were instinctively using one of humankind’s most powerful and oldest traditions—storytelling—to cope with their disaster experiences. 

 

Dr. Jamie D. Aten is a disaster psychologist and the founder and executive director of the Humanitarian Disaster Institute at Wheaton College in Illinois. His latest books include the Disaster Ministry Handbook and Spiritually Oriented Psychotherapy for Trauma. You can follow Jamie on Twitter at @drjamieaten or visit his website, jamieaten.com. Subscribe here to get the latest from jamieaten.com via the Humanitarian Disaster Institute sent directly to your inbox.

How to Avoid Disaster Aid Burnout

This article was originally published in Church Law & Tax on January 27, 2017.

Understanding and preventing burnout equips us to serve well.

In recent weeks, tornadoes ripped through the southeastern United States. Having spent five years in Hattiesburg, Mississippi—one of the areas hit hardest by the tornadoes—I know many of the people who will be called on for help. They are good people, but they are not superhuman.

When disasters like these strike a community, people turn to the church for help. The church is exactly where we want people to go in a time of crisis, but pastors and church leaders don’t have unlimited capacity to help meet every immediate need. In the days and weeks after the event, the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual demands that will hit them will be even higher than the already-high impact of daily ministry. If they aren’t careful to care for themselves while caring for others, they may soon be unable to care for anyone at all.

Many church leaders have difficulty knowing when it’s time to take a break from their helping efforts—and they must take a break. When the needs of disaster survivors take precedence over all other responsibilities and activities—including self-care—church leaders burn out and lose their ability to effectively care for those whose needs will continue to be great for some time. For pastors and other church leaders, an essential aspect of disaster ministry response is learning to recognize burnout and practice strategies for healthy coping.

What is burnout?

Burnout is the state of physical, emotional, and spiritual exhaustion caused by a depletion of the ability to cope with your environment. It is the result of your responses to the ongoing demands and stressors of daily life, and it occurs when your perceived demands outweigh your perceived resources. Burnout involves the depletion of physical and intellectual energy that happens when you are overworked, stressed, and involved in demanding situations over a long period of time. It leaves you feeling tired, rundown, overwhelmed, and irritable.

Burnout has also been associated with a reduced sense of personal accomplishment and a sense of discouragement as an employee. It can happen concurrently with the emotional and spiritual energy depletion that is indicative of compassion fatigue: when exposure to too much pain and suffering weakens your ability to actually feel the level of compassion you usually would. When you are in a situation in which the demands on your body, mind, and heart exceed your resources—and the situation continues for a long time—then you are at significant risk of burnout.

Recognizing, preventing, and treating this condition is vital. Burnout can destroy your productivity, sap your energy, and (in extreme cases) lead to a total collapse.

How are church leaders at risk?

There are many factors that put church leaders at risk of burnout: such factors can be personal, social, work-related, and spiritual.

Personal factors that can contribute to burnout include being a perfectionist or demanding near perfection from yourself and/or others, being pessimistic or negative and quick to find fault, feeling the need to personally be in control of everything around you, developing multiple physical ailments, and being a Type A personality with high demands for achievement.

Social factors include unresolved marital or family problems, people in your life with expectations for you to help them, lack of friendships or close relationships, insufficient sleep, lack of exercise, or feeling that you have many demands with little help or support from others.

Work factors include extended periods of time without a break, unclear or poorly defined expectations from a boss or from those you serve, a sense of failure or fear of losing your job, working in a disorganized or chaotic environment, or working with little or no recognition or support.

Of significant concern for church leaders are spiritual factors: feeling the need to push as hard as possible in doing the Lord’s work, wanting to represent the church and God as caring first for the needs of others. All of these factors increase stress and make it difficult to find relief.

What are the signs of burnout?

The signs of burnout be grouped as physical, emotional, behavioral, and spiritual:

Physical signs of burnout include:

  • Chronic fatigue;
  • Low energy;
  • Low immunity;
  • Frequent illness; and,
  • Poor or changing appetite.

Emotional signs include:

  • Self-doubt or a sense of failure;
  • Constant self-doubt or questioning;
  • Flat affect and lack of enjoyment in things that usually make you happy; and,
  • Sense of defeat and discouragement.

Behavioral signs of burnout include:

  • Procrastination or avoidance of responsibility;
  • Withdrawal or isolation of yourself from others;
  • Turning to excess food or drugs; and,
  • Lack of discipline in your self-care habits, such as exercise, hygiene, or grooming.

Spiritual signs of burnout include:

  • Spiritual disconnection and isolation (e.g., “God has abandoned me”);
  • Religious strain (e.g., “God is so far away from me”); and,
  • Major changes in spiritual meaning-making (e.g., “Why would a good God let such a bad thing happen? I don’t think I can believe in that God anymore”).

What can church leaders do to address burnout?

There is no one “right” way to address burnout. Intervention needs to be tailored to the unique experience and interests of those involved. Following are several examples of how burnout can be addressed among first responders.

Maintain faith:

  • Get in touch with and do things in which you find meaning and purpose;
  • Read spiritual, inspirational, or religious materials, such as Scripture;
  • Stay involved in church life and discuss spiritual topics with others;
  • Attend community-wide church services and engage in spiritual disciplines like prayer, worship, and Bible study; and,
  • If you are experiencing spiritual struggle, talk to someone you trust, such as a close friend or family member, chaplain, or counselor.

Plan well:

  • Set a goal and break it down into easily managed pieces;
  • Take small steps, working through each piece, until you reach your goal;
  • Reward yourself as you complete each step and when you reach the goal (a reward can be a break, some social time, or simply working on a less demanding task);
  • Tell others in your life what your goals are and enlist their support; and,
  • After you reach your goal, work to maintain your improvements.

Balance life activities:

  • Engage in meaningful leisure activities, including activities you have enjoyed in the past and new activities that get you out of a weekly pattern;
  • Schedule regular vacations and be intentional in finding times to relax;
  • Exercise regularly;
  • Prioritize sleep and practice good sleep habits (e.g., going to bed around the same time each night); and,
  • Eat balanced meals each day.

Keep an optimistic perspective:

  • Balance the reality of a situation—avoid focusing only on the negative;
  • Recognize there are multiple contributing factors to your difficulties;
  • Focus on the big picture and avoid “all-or-nothing” thinking;
  • Think realistically and gather the facts—avoid “jumping to conclusions”; and,
  • Avoid rigid expectations and watch for the words “should,” “must,” or “have to” in your speech and thoughts.

If you have tried these strategies but continue to feel burned out; if your reactions worsen over time; or if they cause interference with daily behavior at work, at home, or with other relationships, it may be appropriate to talk to a professional. You can get professional help from your primary care physician, a mental health provider, or another church leader.

Remember that an essential part of caring for others is caring for yourself. Don’t let burnout keep you from caring for your community—not just in the hours and days after a disaster strikes, but in the weeks, months, and even years to come.

Dr. Jamie D. Aten is a disaster psychologist and the founder and executive director of the Humanitarian Disaster Institute and Disaster Ministry Conference at Wheaton College (Wheaton, IL). He is also the co-author of the Disaster Ministry Handbook. He got his start in disaster ministry after moving to South Mississippi just six days before Hurricane Katrina. You can follow Jamie on Twitter at @drjamieaten or visit his website, jamieaten.com.